While TB generally strikes more men than women, it remains among the top 5 causes of death for women between 15 and 44 in low- and middle-income countries. As for malaria, pregnant women are particularly susceptible to this disease, which can also cause miscarriage, low birth weight or premature births. These vulnerabilities are exacerbated by gender inequality and discrimination. Biomedical interventions such as access to ARVs or condoms for prevention, while urgent and necessary, will not reduce their vulnerability to HIV. Only structural transformations – social, political and cultural – will end the spread of HIV.