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South Africa has made significant gains against HIV. Over the last decade, new infections per year have been nearly halved, from 490,000 in 2006, to 270,000 in 2016. Fifty-six percent of those needing antiretroviral treatment have access to it, up from just 20 percent six years ago. South Africa has also made a strong effort to expand counselling and testing. By 2016, an estimated 86 percent of all South Africans living with HIV knew their status. Emphasis on integrating TB and HIV diagnosis and treatment have boosted the response to both diseases, although progress against tuberculosis remains modest. While South Africa’s response to HIV and TB epidemics was slow to take off, free ART and universal coverage are now pillars of government health policy. More than 80 percent of all spending on HIV and TB is domestically funded. Risk of malaria in South Africa is low, and limited to three provinces bordering Mozambique and Swaziland.

South Africa still has the largest number of people living with HIV in the world. Populations concentrated in informal settlements, a large mining sector, and depressed immunity for people living with HIV also make the country heavily burdened with tuberculosis.


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